NASA’s Gold Box Will Make Oxygen on Mars
The Martian environment is ninety 5% carbon dioxide, about a couple of % nitrogen, a couple of % argon, hint quantities of every thing else. However there’s nonetheless a variety of CO2, and in order that’s most likely probably the most considerable useful resource on Mars apart from grime. CO2 has oxygen sure in it. And if we will liberate that oxygen from a few of that CO2, then we will use it to do one thing helpful.
The purpose is to pave the best way for future human exploration of Mars by demonstrating the flexibility to generate oxygen. That is the place the magic occurs is inside that field. NASA is about to launch its subsequent rover to the crimson planet in 2020. Stacked inside are seven science devices, six of that are centered on pattern evaluation like this Super cam and a spectrometer known as PIXL that’ll measure chemical signatures inside Martian rocks. And this field getting lowered contained in the stomach of the rover is MOXIE, or the Mars Oxygen In-Situ Useful resource Utilization Experiment.
It’s obtained an agenda separate from the others, and that’s to make oxygen on Mars for the primary time. Effectively, at the very least in actual life. Within the Martian, there was one thing that was known as the oxygenator. If the oxygenator breaks, I’ll suffocate. If the water reclaimer breaks, I’ll die of thirst. So we jokingly seek advice from MOXIE because the oxygenator. It is unclear within the film what know-how the oxygenator is definitely utilizing, nevertheless it’s very probably that it could be one thing like MOXIE however scaled up. MOXIE makes use of a know-how known as strong oxide electrolysis.
It really works loads like a reverse gas cell the place as a substitute of placing in a gas and getting electrical energy out, we will put electrical energy in and electrolytes and mainly get a gas and an oxidizer out. On the skin the rover, we have now a small field with a filter. The filter is to guarantee that we do not attract any mud from the Martian environment into our system, as a result of the subsequent factor within the path is a scroll compressor.
The scroll compressor takes this low strain Martian fuel from the environment and compresses it and brings it as much as one thing nearer to Earth’s atmospheric strain. As a result of the subsequent factor that we do is we run it into this factor. We name this our strong oxide electrolysis stack and it’s mainly a layer cake of a bunch of steel plates, that are the darkish inexperienced issues. After which these mild coloured layers are skinny ceramic cells which have specific chemical properties the place at excessive temperature, they’ll conduct electrical energy utilizing oxygen because the charged provider.
We warmth this man as much as about eight hundred levels Celsius. You’ve gotten oxygen ions on one facet and also you apply a voltage, then you possibly can selectively dry the oxygen by the ceramic membrane and separate it out from no matter’s on the opposite facet. It goes by a set of sensors very very like these sitting right here on the desk in entrance of me. And we measure what fraction of CO2 is there.
We put CO2 in right here. Oxygen comes out right here. And the waste product, which is a combination of CO and carbon monoxide and unreacted CO2 comes out right here. It’s gold as a result of we had been involved that MOXIE itself would run hotter than every thing else round it. And we wished to verify we didn’t impression any of the close by electronics containers contained in the rover. And so, gold has very low emissivity, so it doesn’t radiate warmth successfully. This specific chemistry course of is type of distinctive to Mars in its applicability, and in addition the packaging and the way we really construct this method to outlive launch and get to Mars. Nobody has ever achieved something like this. MOXIE goes to make about six grams per hour of oxygen. It is not very a lot.
It is about sufficient to maintain a small canine alive. We do not have the assets accessible on the rover to run MOXIE for lengthy durations of time constantly as a result of a variety of the rover power needs to be used for different science that they wish to do.
We’ll most likely run MOXIE at roughly as soon as each two months. The purpose for us is to pattern totally different environmental circumstances on Mars. So day versus night time, summer time versus winter, mud storm versus not mud storm…to evaluate how the know-how behaves in response to those altering environmental circumstances. What would possibly occur sooner or later actually will depend on the know-how that NASA decides to go along with on Mars. For those who’re assumption is that you simply solely have the CO2 within the environment accessible, you they’d have one thing like MOXIE scaled up by a couple of issue of 200. You’d launch it and ship it to Mars about two years earlier than people set foot there.
It might have a bunch of supporting tools like an influence system and a storage system, and it could sit for 2 years and simply generate oxygen and accumulate it, after which it could be prepared to be used by the people after they present up two years later. It is actually thrilling for me to have the ability to construct one thing that is going to land on one other planet. I hope that it is gonna work the best way we count on it to. And that paves the best way for future human exploration within the not too distant future.